Resumen del libro
In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in the cultural aspects of tourism such as the impacts of culture on tourism planning, development, management, and marketing. However, the focus has been on material forms of culture such as arts, music, or crafts. The impacts of national culture on tourist behavior and travel decision-making have not been paid much attention. Only in the last two years have cross-cultural issues begun to generate significant interest among academics. An examination of cultural characteristics and differences is extremely important to the tourism industry because todays tourism environment is becoming increasingly international.Advances in technology, and improved communication and transportation have enhanced peoples mobility and travel such that exposure to culturally different societies, cultures exchanges and interactions is now commonplace. It is imperative for industry representatives, who operate in the international business environment and deal with foreign tourists on a daily basis, to understand the influence of national cultures of their customers. Unfortunately, information on the nature of the cultural differences between international tourists and locals is not readily available in tourism literature. The concept of culture is very complex. The analysis of cultural differences in a multidisciplinary tourism context and/or application of the literature on cultural differences in the abstract concepts such as satisfaction, attitude or loyalty (that have different meanings in different cultures) to the tourism context create problems.Although the effects of national characteristics on consumer behavior in general have been investigated in several research studies, more information is required concerning the cultural differences in the tourism context. This book will bring these concepts to the undergraduate student in tourism, as well as students in the related fields of marketing, management, international business, and cross-cultural communication. Designed as a textbook, it will organized and presented in an integrated and relevant way for the benefit of a worldwide audience. It provides comprehensive coverage of cross-cultural issues and behavior in tourism. Textbook design features learning objectives, discussion points and review questions to facilitate student use. It illustrates how international cultural differences influence travel decision-making.
Table of Contents Acknowledgements Preface List of Tables List of Figures Foreword Introduction Aims Scope Reader benefits General market Part One International Tourism: The Global Environment 1 Globalization, tourism and culture Introduction 1.1 The concept and roots of globalization 1.2 Benefits and criticism of globalization 1.3 Globalization and the tourism industry 1.3.1 The influence of globalization on tourism 1.3.2 Forms and examples of globalization in tourism 1.3.3 A new type of tourist 1.3.4 A new type of tourism 1.4 Globalization and culture 1.4.1 The emergence of globalized consumer culture? 1.4.2 Global consumer and global products? 1.4.3 Disappearance of local cultures? 1.4.4 Cultural homogenization? 1.4.5 Product standardization or customization? 1.4.6 Cultural heterogenization? 1.4.7 Cultural convergence or divergence? 1.4.8 Cultural hybridization? 1.4.9 Cultural commoditization? 1.4.10 Cultural deterioration, loss, adaptation or change? 1.4.11 Consumerism a bad thing for tourism? 1.4.12 Globalization and disappearance of local identity? 1.4.13 Resistance to cultural change and emergence of local identity 1.4.14 Glocalisation 1.4.15 Local internationalization and regional cooperation 1.5 Benefits and limitations of globalization in tourism 1.6 Challenges of globalization in tourism 1.7 The future of globalization: Americanization of culture, cosmopolitan culture, cultural hybridization, cultural disappearance or culture clash? Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 1.1: The emergence of a global tourist culture? Disneyland resorts spread over the world Website links References 2 Cultural diversity Introduction 2.1 The concept of cultural diversity 2.1.1 Definition 2.1.2 Interpretation of cultural diversity 2.1.3 How did the concept of cultural diversity develop? 2.1.4 How to measure cultural diversity? 2.1.5 Is cultural diversity important? 2.1.6 The benefits of cultural diversity 2.1.7 The influence of cultural diversity on tourism and hospitality 2.2 UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity 2.3 The future of cultural diversity 2.4 Challenges for the tourism and hospitality industry Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 2.1: American in Paris Case Study 2.2: Creativity in a tense situation Case Study 2.3: Promoting the unpromotional Website links References Part Two Cultural Theories and Practices 3 Intercultural theories Introduction 3.1 Communication Resourcefulness Theory (CRT) 3.2 Episode Representation Theory (ERT) 3.3 Expectations Theory (ET) 3.4 Cultural Identity Negotiation Theory (CINT) 3.5 Meaning of Meaning Theory 3.6 Network Theory in Intercultural Communication 3.7 Taxonomic Approach (TA) 3.8 Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory (AUMT) 3.9 Stranger Theory 3.10 Face-Negotiation Theory 3.11 Intercultural Adaptation Theory (IAT) 3.12 Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) 3.13 Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory (CMMT) 3.14 Constructivist Theory (CT) Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Website links References 4 Cultural practices and tourism impacts on culture Introduction 4.1 Erosion of local cultures 4.2 Cultural commoditization and transformation 4.3 Cultural hostility 4.4 Cultural arrogance 4.5 Authenticity of tourism experiences 4.6 Renaissance of traditional art forms 4.7 Marketing of culture and violation of rights to own cultural heritage 4.8 Culture change 4.9 Culture diffusion 4.10 Cultural borrowing 4.11 Cultural drift 4.12 Acculturation 4.13 Cultural adaptation 4.14 Cultural adjustment 4.15 Culture assimilation 4.16 Enculturation 4.17 Demonstration effect 4.18 Cultural conflict Summary Discussion points and questions Further readings Case Study 4.1: Discovering the Maori culture Website links References Part Three Culture and Cultural Differences 5 Culture Introduction 5.1 Definition of culture 5.2 Culture as civilization 5.3 Cultures by region 5.4 Culture as religion 5.5 The world?s major religions 5.6 Religion by region 5.7 Types and levels of culture 5.8 Civilization 5.9 Types of cultures in tourism 5.10 The purpose of culture 5.11 Characteristics of culture 5.12 Subcultures 5.13 Culture versus nationality 5.14 Culture versus country of residence 5.15 Culture versus country of birth 5.16 Cultural identity 5.17 Cultural distance 5.18 The impact of cultural distance on travel 5.19 The measurement of cultural distance Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 5.1: Micro-cultures of the U.S. Website links References 6 Cultural variability Introduction 6.1 Sources of cultural differences 6.2 Cultural values 6.2.1 Concept and definitions 6.2.2 Culture and values 6.2.3 Value system and value orientation 6.2.4 Value orientation 6.2.5 Types of values 6.2.6 Classification of values 6.2.7 Measurement and analysis of values 6.2.8 Value studies in tourism 6.2.9 Cultural value dimensions 188.8.131.52 Parson?s pattern variables 184.108.40.206 Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's value orientation 220.127.116.11 Stewart?s cultural patterns 18.104.22.168 Hall's cultural differentiation 22.214.171.124 Hofstede's dimensions of cultural variability 126.96.36.199 Bond?s Confucian cultural patterns 188.8.131.52 Argyle's cultural differentiation 184.108.40.206 Schein?s, Trompenaars? and Maznevski?s cultural differentiation 220.127.116.11 Schneider and Barsoux?s cultural assumptions 18.104.22.168 Inglehart's cultural dimensions 22.214.171.124 Minkov?s World Value Survey Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Exercises Case Study 6.1: The U.S. culture Website links References 7 Cultural influences on intercultural communication Introduction 7.1 The concept of communication 7.2 What is intercultural communication? 7.3 Difficulties in intercultural communication 7.3.1 Verbal signals 7.3.2 Non-verbal signals 7.3.3 Relationship patterns 7.3.4 Conversation style 7.3.5 Interaction style 7.3.6 Values 7.3.7 Time orientation 7.3.8 Context orientation 7.4 Is intercultural communication possible? 7.5 Ethnocentrism 7.6 Stereotyping 7.7 Prejudices 7.8 Racism 7.9 Strategies for improving intercultural communication 7.10 The ethics of intercultural communication Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 7.1: Courtesy and politeness in Thailand and Australia Website links References 8 Cultural influences on social interaction Introduction 8.1 Concept and definitions 8.2 Social interaction in tourism 8.3 Intercultural social interaction 8.4 Types of intercultural interaction 8.5 Model of cross-cultural social interaction 8.6 Contact hypothesis 8.7 Difficulties in cross-cultural interaction 8.8 Culture shock Summary Discussion points and questions Further readings Case Study 8.1: Shanghai night or nightmare? Website links References 9 Cultural influences on rules of social interaction Introduction 9.1 Rules of social interaction 9.2 Orders and types of rules 9.3 Relationship rules 9.4 Cultural influences on rules of social interaction 9.5 Understanding rules of social interaction 9.6 Breaking rules 9.7 Cross-cultural differences in rules of social interaction Summary Discussion points and questions Further readings Case Study 9.1: Universal and specific rules of social relationships websites References 10 Cultural influences on service Introduction 10.1 The concept of service 10.2 Service encounter 10.3 Service classification 10.4 Key characteristics of service 10.5 Importance of service perceptions 10.6 Cultural differences in expectations from service 10.7 Service quality and value 10.8 Service satisfaction 10.9 Do cultural differences always matter? Summary Discussion points and questions Further readings Case Study 10.1: Chinese travelers in France Website links References 11 Cultural influences on ethical behavior Introduction 11.1 The concept of ethics 11.2 Ethics in tourism 11.3 Ethics in a cross-cultural context 11.4 Cultural influences in ethical behavior 11.5 The most debatable business ethics issues 11.6 Conflicting ethical behavior and practices in tourism and hospitality. Ethical dilemmas 11.7 Theories and frameworks dealing with ethical dilemmas 11.8 Strategies for managing business ethical dilemmas 11.9 Global Code of Ethics for Tourism Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 11.1: Global Code of Ethics for Tourism Website links References Part Four Tourist Behavior 12 Human behavior: its nature and determinants Introduction 12.1 The concept of human behavior 12.2 Environmental factors influencing human behavior 12.3 Theories of human behavior 12.4 Basic needs of human behavior 12.5 Factors influencing human needs 12.6 The concept of tourist behavior 12.7 The nature of tourist behavior 12.8 The meaning of tourist behavior 12.9 The importance of studying tourist behavior 12.10 The importance of studying tourist behavior in a cross-cultural context 12.11 Benefits of understanding tourist behavior in a cross-cultural context Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 12.1: The Asian woman?s shopping experience: New research from Thailand Website links References 13 Consumer buying behavior Introduction 13.1 Environmental Factors 13.1.1 Environmental stimuli 13.2 Buyer?s factors 13.2.1 Buyer?s personal characteristics 13.2.2 Buyer?s psychological characteristics 13.2.3 Decision process 13.3 Other theories of consumer decision-making Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Website links References 14 Cultural influences on tourist buying behavior Introduction 14.1 Cultural influence on buyer?s personal characteristics 14.1.1 Gender roles 14.1.2 Lifestyle and activities 14.1.3 Personality 14.1.4 The self concept 14.2 Cultural influences on buyer?s psychological characteristics 14.2.1 Motivation and needs 14.2.2 Perception and image 14.2.3 Learning and knowledge 14.2.4 Attitudes 14.2.5 Attribution 14.3 Cultural influences on buyer?s decision process 14.3.1 Need recognition 14.3.2 Information search and choice of information sources 126.96.36.199 The role of reference groups 188.8.131.52 The role of opinion leadership 184.108.40.206 Family decision making 220.127.116.11 Buying roles 18.104.22.168 Level of decision-making 22.214.171.124 Buying new products 14.3.3 Criteria and product evaluation 14.3.4 Purchase decision 126.96.36.199 Purchase risk 14.3.5 Post-purchase behavior/decision 188.8.131.52 Satisfaction 184.108.40.206 Loyalty and commitment 220.127.116.11 Criticism and complaints 18.104.22.168 Product disposal 14.3.6 Beyond the purchase decision 22.214.171.124 Memories and meanings 126.96.36.199 Emotions and feelings Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 14.1: Japanese tourist behavior Case Study 14.2: Cultural influences on tourist behavior Website links References Part Five Cross-Cultural Comparison 15 Cultural differences among international societies Introduction 15.1 Africa 15.2 Asia 15.2.1 Common Asian values 15.2.2 China 15.2.3 Indonesia 15.2.4 Japan 15.2.5 Malaysia 15.2.6 Pakistan 15.2.7 The Philippines 15.2.8 South Korea 15.2.9 Thailand 15.2.10 Vietnam 15.3 Australia 15.4 Europe 15.4.1 Important European values 15.4.2 France 15.4.3 Germany 15.4.4 Italy 15.4.5 Poland 15.4.6 Russia 15.4.7 Spain 15.4.8 United Kingdom 15.5 India 15.6 Latin America 15.6.1 Common Latin American values 15.6.2 Mexico 15.6.3 Brazil 15.7 Middle East 15.7.1 Common Arab values 15.7.2 Saudi Arabia 15.7.3 United Arab Emirates 15.8 North America 15.8.1 Canada 15.8.2 The United States Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 15.1: Managing in Asia: Cross-cultural dimensions Website links References Part Six Multicultural Competence 16 Multicultural competence in a global world Introduction 16.1 The concept of multicultural competence 16.2 Dimensions of multicultural competence 16.3 Other factors influencing multicultural competence 16.4 Multicultural competence as a process 16.5 Multicultural competence development levels 16.6 Multiculturalism assessment techniques 16.7 An educational challenge Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 16.1: One practical solution to overcoming the language barrier Website links References Conclusion